参考文献

参考文献
以下の商品一覧には、Building Blocksの登録商標が含まれています。® または ™ の記号が欠落している場合でも、それは商標権の法的なステータスになんら影響を与えることはなく、商標が存在しないとの解釈を許すものではありません。

クレアチン全般について

[1] A.M. Persky, G.A. Brazeau. Clinical Pharmacology of the Dietary Supplement Creatine Monohydrate. Pharmacol. Rev. 2001, 53, 161-176; M. Wyss, R. Kaddurah-Daouk. Creatine and Creatinine Metabolism. Physiol. Rev. 2000, 80, 1107-1213. J. Walker. Creatine: Biosynthesis, regulation, and function. Adv. Enzym. 1979, 50, 117-242.
[2] P.D. Balsom, K. Söderlund, B. Ekblom. Creatine in humans with special reference to creatine supplementation. Sports Med. 1994, 18(4), 268-280.
[3] H.D. Hoberman, E.A.H. Sims, J.H. Peters. Creatine and creatinine metabolism in normal male adult studied with the aid of isotopic nitrogen. J. Biol. Chem. 1948, 172, 45-58.
[4] T. Wallimann, M. Wyss, D. Brdiczka, K. Nicolay, H.M. Eppenberger. Intracellular compartmentation, structure and function of creatine kinase isoenzymes in tissues with high and fluctuating energy demands: the “phosphocreatine circuit” for cellular energy homeostasis. Biochem. J. 1992, 281, 21-40.
[5] S. Stöckler, D. Isbrandt, F. Hanefeld, I. Marquardt, G. Helms, M. Requart, W. Hänicke, J. Frahm. Creatine deficiency in the brain: a new, treatable inborn error of metabolism. Pediatr. Res. 1994, 36, 409-413.
[6] G. del Campo, B. Gallego, I. Berrei, J.A. Casado. Food Chemistry 1998, 63, 187-190.
[7] J.R. Delanghe, J.-P. de Slypere, M. de Buyzere, J. Robbrecht, R. Wieme, A. Vermeulen. Normal reference values for creatine, creatinine, and carnitine are lower in vegetarians. Clin. Chem. 1989, 35, 1802-1803.
[8] J. Hülsemann, F. Manz, T. Wember, G. Schöch. Klin. Pädiat. 1987, 199, 292-295.

スポーツ/フィットネス関連

[1] A.M. Persky, G.A. Brazeau. Clinical Pharmacology of the Dietary Supplement Creatine Monohydrate. Pharmacol. Rev. 2001, 53, 161-176; M. Wyss, R. Kaddurah-Daouk. Creatine and Creatinine Metabolism. Physiol. Rev. 2000, 80, 1107-1213. J. Walker. Creatine: Biosynthesis, regulation, and function. Adv. Enzym. 1979, 50, 117-242.
[9] R. Harris. Bioavailability of Creatine Monohydrate, Creatine Citrate and Creatine Pyruvate Research Report, 2002.
[10] E. Hultman, K. Söderlund, J.A. Timmons, G. Cederblad, P.L. Greenhaff. Muscle creatine loading in men. J. Appl. Physiol. 1996, 81(1), 232-237.
[11] A.L. Green, E. Hulyman, I.A. Macdonald, D.A. Sewell, P.L. Greenhaff. Carbohydrate ingestion augments skeletal muscle creatine accumulation during creatine supplementation in humans. Am. J. Physiol. 1996, 271, E821-E826.
[12] G.R. Steenge, E.J. Simpson, P.L. Greenhaff. Protein- and carbohydrate-induced augmentation of whole body creatine retention in humans. J. Appl. Physiol. 2000, 89, 1165-1171.
[13] D.G. Burke, P.D. Chilibeck, G.A. Parise, M.A. Tarnopolsky. The Effect of a-Lipoic Acid Supplementation on Resting Muscle Creatine During Acute Creatine Loading. FASEB J. 2001, 15(5), A814.
[14] R.C. Harris, K. Söderlund, E. Hultman. Evaluation of creatine in resting and exercised muscle in normal subjects by creatine supplementation. Clinical Science 1992, 83, 367-374.
[15] A.L. Green, E.J. Simpson, J.J. Littlewood, I.A. Macdonald, P.L. Greenhaff. Carbohydrate ingestion augments creatine retention during creatine feeding in humans. Acta Physiol. Scand. 1996, 158, 195-202.
[16] The American College of Sports Medicine Roundtable on physiological and health effects of oral creatine supplementation. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 2000, 32, 706-717; M.H. Williams, R.B. Kreider, J.D. Branch, Creatine – The Power Supplement Human Kinetics. Champaign, IL, 1999. ISBN 0-7360-0162-X.
[17] Report of the Scientific Committee on Food (SFC) of the European Union on composition and specification of food intended to meet the expenditure of intense muscular effort, especially for sportsmen (Adopted by the SCF on 22 June 2000).
[18] P.L. Greenhaff, K. Bodin, K. Söderlund, E. Hultman. Effect of oral creatine supplementation on skeletal muscle phosphocreatine resynthesis. Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. 1994, 266, E725-E730.
[19] P.D. Balsom, B. Ekblom, K. Söderlund, B. Sjödin, E. Hultman. Creatine supplementation and dynamic high-intensity intermittent exercise. Scand. J. Med. Sci. Sports 1993, 3, 143-149.
[20] K. Söderlund, P.D. Balsom, B. Ekblom. Creatine supplementation and high-intensity exercise: influence on performance and muscle metabolism. Clin. Sci. 1994, 87 (Suppl.), 120-121.

健康に年齢を重ねていくことについて

[21] L. Larsson, G. Gimby, J. Karlsson. Muscle strength and speed of movement in relation to age and muscle morphology. J. Appl. Physiol. 1979, 46, 451-456, Y. Aoyagi, R.J. Shepard. Aging and muscle function. Sports Med. 1992, 14, 376-396.
[22] N.B. Alexander, A.B. Schultz, J.A. Ashton-Miller, M.M. Gross, B. Giordani. Muscle strength and rising from a chair in older adults. Muscle Nerve Suppl. 1997, 5, S56-S59.
[23] P. Möller, J. Bergstrom, P. Furst, K. Hellstrom. Clin. Sci. 1980, 58, 553-555.
[24] G. Parise, A. Brose, N. McCartney, M. Tarnopolsky. Book of Abstracts 6th International Meeting on Guanidino Compounds in Biology & Medicine, August 31st-September 3rd, 2001.
[25] K. McCully, J. Posner. Int. J. Sports Med. 1992, 13, 147-149.
[26] S.A. Smith, S.J. Montain, R.P. Matott, G.P. Zientara, F.A. Jolesz, R.A. Fielding. Creatine supplementation and age influence muscle metabolism during exercise. J. Appl. Physiol. 1998, 85, 1349-1356.
[27] L.A. Gotshalk, J.S. Volek, R.S. Staron, C.R. Denegar, F.C. Hagerman, W.J. Kraemer. Creatine supplementation improves muscular performance in older men. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 2002, 34, 537-543.
[28] M.J. Chrusch, P.D. Chilibeck, K.E. Chad, K.S. Davison, D.G. Burke. Creatine supplementation combined with resistance training in older men. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 2001, 33, 2111-2117.

栄養が偏っている場合について

[7] J.R. Delanghe, J.-P. de Slypere, M. de Buyzere, J. Robbrecht, R. Wieme, A. Vermeulen. Normal reference values for creatine, creatinine, and carnitine are lower in vegetarians. Clin. Chem. 1989, 35, 1802-1803.
[29] A. Shomrat, Y. Weinstein, A. Katz. Effect of Creatine on maximal exercise performance in vegetarians. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 2000, 82(4), 321-325.
[33] K. Vandenberghe, N. Gillis, M. van Leemputte, P. van Hecke, F. Vanstapel, P. Hespel. Coffeine counteracts the ergogenic action of muscle creatine loading. J. Appl. Physiol. 1996, 80(2), 425-427.

筋力の回復について

[30] B. Op’t Eijnde, B. Urso, E.A. Richter, P.L. Greenhaff, P. Hespel, Diabetes 2001, 50, 18-23.
[31] P. Hespel, B. Op`t Ejinde, M. van Leemputte, B. Urso, P.L. Greenhaff, V. Labarque, S. Dymarkowski, P. van Hecke, E.A. Richter. J. Physiol. 2001, 536, 625-633.

「クレアピュア(Creapure™)」の保証

[34] S. Weiss, H. Krummer. Process for the preparation of a Creatine or Creatine Monohydrate. US patent 5, 719, 319.
[35] Assay of Creatine and Determination of the Impurities Dicyandiamide, Creatinine and Dihydrotriazine in Creatine Monohydrate by HPLC. BioActives analytical method SOP 107-138/1, revision 9 (March 22nd, 2002).
[36] R.C. Harris. Effects and Safety of Dietary and Supplementary Creatine, in "Creatine from basis science to Clinical Application", Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000 (ISBN 0-7923-6118-0).
[37] W. Brink, What’s really in your Creatine? Muscl. Magazine Intl., Mississauga, Canada, May 1998.
[38] Opinion on safety aspects of creatine supplementation (Adopted by the SCF on 7 September 2000).
[39] H. Senff, A. Kuhlwein, B.M. Hausen. Allergisches Kontaktekzem auf Dicyandiamid. Dermatosen 1988, 36 (3), 99-101.
[40] B. Mertschenk, Ch. Gloxhuber, T. Wallimann. Gesundheitliche Bewertung von Kreatin als Nahrungsergänzungsmittel. Deutsche Lebensmittel-Rundschau 2001, 97(7), 250-257.
[41] M. Wyss, A. Schulze. Health implications of Creatine: Can oral Creatine supplementation protect against neurological and atherosclerotic disease? Neuroscience 2002, 112, 243-260; B.K. Schilling, M.H. Stone, A. Utter, J.T. Kearney, M. Johnson, R. Coglianese, L. Smith, H.S. O’Bryant, A.C. Fry, M. Starks, R. Keith, M.E. Stone. Creatine supplementation and health variables: a retrospective study. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 2001, 33, 183-188; R.J. Poortmans, M. Francaux. Long-term oral Creatine supplementation does not impair renal function in healthy athletes. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 1999, 31, 1108-110; Publication series on Kreider et al.´s 2-year safety study on college football players supplemented with 15.75 g/d for 5 days followed by 5 g/d: e.g. C. Melton, R. Kreider, C. Rasmussen, J. Ransom, T. Stroud, E. Cantler, M. Greenwood, P. Milnor. Effects of Creatine supplementation during in-season college football training on markers of clinical status. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 1999, 13, 429-430.
[42] A.N. Howard, R.C. Harris. Compositions containing Creatine. US patent 5, 968, 544.
[43] M. Reitz. In Alters Frische, Verlag Gesundheit, Berlin 1996.
[45] J.M. Lawler, W.S. Barnes, G. Wu, W. Song, S. Demaree. Direct Antioxidant Poperties of Creatine. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 2002, 290, 47-52.

メンタル・フィットネス

[44] A. Watanabe, N. Kato, T. Kato. Effects of Creatine on mental fatigue and cerebral hemoglobin oxygenation. Neuroscience Research 2002, 42, 279-285.

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